These are Active Verbs which you can use to express demonstrable/measurable learning achievements. The list is based on the six subsequent levels of understanding called "Bloom's Taxonomy". The higher the level, the more abstract the understanding of the matter, or achievement.

  1. Knowledge, Observation, & Recall of Information: i.e., knowledge of dates, events, places; knowledge of major ideas; mastery of subject matter.
    Use these Active Verbs: arrange, collect, define, duplicate, examine, label, list, memorize, name (who, when, where, etc.), order, quote, recall, recite, recognize, relate, repeat, reproduce, show, state, tabulate, tell
    Example Learning Outcomes:
  2. Comprehension - Understanding Information: i.e., grasp meaning; translate knowledge into new context; interpret facts, compare, contrast, order, group, infer causes, predict consequences.
    Use these Active Verbs: associate, classify, contrast, describe, discuss, differentiate, discuss, distinguish, estimate, explain, express, extend, identify, indicate, interpret, list, locate, recognize, report, restate, review, select, summarize, trace, translate
    Example Learning Outcomes:
  3. Application: i.e., use information; use methods, concepts, theories in new situations; solve problems using required skills or knowledge.
    Use these Active Verbs: apply, calculate, change, choose, classify, complete, compose examples of, demonstrate, describe, discover, employ, examine, experiment, illustrate, interpret, modify, operate, practice, relate, scan, schedule, show, sketch, solve, use.
    Example Learning Outcomes:
  4. Analysis: i.e. seeing patterns, organization of parts, recognition of hidden meanings, identification of components
    Use these Active Verbs: analyze, appraise, arrange, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, determine, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, divide, examine, experiment, explain, infer, order, question, select, separate, test.
    Example Learning Outcomes:
  5. Synthesis: i.e. use old ideas to create new ones, generalize from given facts, relate knowledge from several areas, predict, draw conclusions.
    Use these Active Verbs: arrange, assemble, collect, combine, compose, construct, create, design, formulate, generalize, integrate, invent, manage, modify, organize, plan, predict, prepare, propose, rearrange, rewrite, set up, substitute. 
    Example Learning Outcomes:
  6. Evaluation: i.e. compare and discriminate between ideas; assess value of theories, presentations; make choices based on reasoned argument; verify value of evidence; recognize subjectivity
    Use these Active Verbs: appraise, argue, assess, challenge, choose, conclude, convince, decide, defend, discriminate, dispute, evaluate, grade, judge, measure, rank, rate, recommend, score, select, support, test, value. 
    Example Learning Outcomes:

All information on this page is copied or adapted from accessed on December 11, 2005.

Sebastian Springer 2005-17.